Rabbit coat color is primarily determined by five genes. . Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. To circumvent this problem, we modeled the domestication process, as described below. Holland Lops 2003). All rights reserved. 2004; Lau et al. either A or a and either B or b (one allele for each gene). Task 1 By clicking on them, and dragging, move a black rabbit and a white rabbit into the oval areas for breeding. The “a” gene comes in three forms: “A,” which is responsible for agouti rabbits; “at,” which is responsible for otters, tans (rare) and martens; and “a,” which is responsible for “self” colored rabbits. and/or and/or and/or, What kind(s) of gametes can the kits produce? Fun new article illustrated with super cute charts. Interestingly, increased size was likely one of the first traits to be selected in domestic rabbits (Clutton-Brock 1999), raising the intriguing possibility that GPC4 was itself the target of selection. Levels of variation captured during domestication (after excluding both GPC4 and LUM; supplementary table 5, Supplementary Material online) were similar and not significantly different for loci residing on the autosomes (πDOM/πOCCFR = 65.1% and θDOM/θOCCFR = 53.2%) compared with loci residing on the X chromosome (πDOM/πOCCFR = 60.0% and θDOM/θOCCFR = 60.2%; P > 0.30 in both cases by Mann–Whitney U test). 2) What was the impact of the domestication process on levels and patterns of genetic variation within and among domestic rabbit breeds? Autosomal loci were chosen from different chromosomes or far apart on the same chromosome (chromosomes 4 and 14). 2007; Parker et al. 2004). Consistent with the recent colonization of France, genetic variation in OCCFR was largely a subsample from OCCIP. Average number of pairwise differences in a sample (Nei 1987). Collaboration between two students can be arranged face-to-face where they speak to each other but do not look at each other's simulation. Note the substantial haplotype sharing between DOM and OCCFR and the absence of OCA haplotypes in DOM for all genes showing fixed variation between subspecies. ½ of their kits would be expected to be heterozygous blackand ½ homozygous chocolate. and/or and/or and/or, If we arbitrarily let the buck be aabbcc, what kind(s) of gametes can he produce? Step 1: Put the doe's alleles in the correct locations, by placing one allele in each of the boxes at the far left. Levels of differentiation and gene genealogies were contrasted between native range wild rabbits and a representative set of 14 domestic rabbit breeds (supplementary table 1, Supplementary Material online). Written for Holland Lops, but the genetics apply to all breeds . Rabbit Population Simulation. 50% of the kits would be black agouti, Given the relationship kdom = Nbdom/ddom, and assuming a maximum of 900 generations (one generation a year) for the duration of the rabbit domestication bottleneck (ddom), we estimate that ∼1,200 individuals (2,400 chromosomes) can explain the amount of genetic diversity captured in the initial stages of rabbit domestication. 2010). All traces and heterozygote calls were visually inspected and edited when necessary. On the X, loci were chosen at regular intervals along the chromosome. Likewise, multilocus HKA tests indicated departures from a neutral equilibrium model in DOM (P = 0.000) and OCCFR (P = 0.002) but not in OCA (P = 0.761) or OCCIP (P = 0.611; supplementary fig. Sample Learning Goals Determine which mutations are favored by the selection agents of predators and food variety and which mutations are neutral. and/or and/or and/or and/or Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Now with info on malaria in Tanzania. We further varied Npfr and Npdom by one order of magnitude in both directions and the results remained largely unaltered (data not shown). Two rows of black family colors are followed by two rows of the corresponding chocolate family colors. To use the SpeakUP app, students are required to enter a common room number or create a room and share the number of the room with the other student(s). Therefore, a total of 2 × 2 = 4 possible types of The extent of loss of diversity varied greatly among loci (supplementary fig. produce a self offspring. Median-joining haplotype networks representing the evolutionary relationships among alleles found in both domestic and wild rabbits. Black family colors include black . Although the average values of π for DOM were similar to that in other domesticated species such as cattle (π = 0.140–0.247%, Gibbs et al. The ML value for the global data set was estimated only for kdom as the product of the likelihood for each locus. 2010). . . Here’s an illustrated tutorial on using “breeding squares.” . Thus, we compared four groups: Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus (n = 10, OCA), O. c. cuniculus from Iberian Peninsula (n = 12, OCCIP), O. c. cuniculus from France (n = 15, OCCFR), and domesticated rabbits (n = 25, DOM).
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