the simile in lines 21 22 primarily serves to illustrate

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the simile in lines 21 22 primarily serves to illustrate

There is reality to the classifications of simile families that various critics have developed. The death of Patroclus removes all ambiguity; clarity and direct expression replace the complexity of the previous units. 1981. Classical Journal 52:323–28. The half-line may be added because of its association with Hector’s fate. It is just as significant to discover that the poet did not include a simile in one passage as that he did in another; the effects of the two scenes can be quite different and should offer clues to the design of the larger narrative. 3), 1997, and 2002; Bakker 1992 and 1995, esp. Seldom are the comparanda between simile and narrative so transparent (wind = wind). In other words, Homer can introduce gods as complementary motivators or even narrative aids that allow the story to develop easily once he has outlined the values basic to the plot. Although taken from different similemes (insect, bird, fish, and lion), the similes are organized to reinforce the coherent design supporting the book’s theme: both the violence of the battle and the peace of the simile world characterize the new Ithaca that will arise directly from the deaths inflicted by Odysseus.93, Homer’s control in designing these similes is further evident in the several places where he chose to omit a simile. In putting the simileme into words he creates a vivid picture both by including complementary objects and suppressing alternatives that he felt were inappropriate. Killing enemy warriors or capturing them for ransom are familiar and suitable activities in the Iliad, but few warriors take prisoners to be living sacrifices. In book 2 of the Iliad the poet chose to include many different simile subjects placed at traditional junctures, but each of those junctures focused attention on the army—even the two short similes of children and flowers (2.468 and 872). The final two sections concern the interrelationship of gods and men on the battlefield. 5.490, where the traditional fire simileme for the hero Odysseus at a low moment is reduced to a mere ember. Not only do they hear each phrase as a small component in the bigger picture; they also hear it in a framework of other phrases that have been tempered and shaped by previous usage. Penelope, as she tells of her vacillation before the suitors, is like Aedon lamenting the death of her son (Ody. Bloomington. 1987. 82. The paralleling of two radically different subjects or actions juxtaposed and placed in like settings permits a critic to see the artistic processes of the poet with a clarity available at few other places in the poems. For recent studies of the Shield see Austin 1975:115–28; Andersen 1976; Atchity 1977:160–72; Taplin 1980:1–21; Lynn-George 1988:174–200; Hubbard 1992; Stanley 1993; Dubel 1995; Becker 1990; Redfield 1995:186–203; Stambury-O’Donnell 1995; Nagy 1997; Moog-Grünewald 2001; Snodgrass 1998:40–44; Edwards 1991:200–209; Alden 2000: 48–73; Scully 2003. But then all of book 16 is filled with distorted views, and expectations have usually resulted in the reverse of projections. It is only a marker on the battlefield; there is little point in stressing any other element concerning the wall than its transience, and this is best done by telling its history. Hector now learns from Paris about the losses that have occurred in the course of book 13, gathers the survivors, and leads them to reestablish his lines. Zeus announced the enforcement of his plan in book 8, pressed it in book 11, and brings the plan close to fulfillment when Hector breaks open the gates in book 12. In addition, there is growing strength in Idomeneus’ achievements: he first kills a Trojan, then so threatens Deiphobus that he must seek Aeneas, and finally becomes the new center of the battle. Chart 2 reveals only three further standard components in the lion/boar simileme: the confidence or fear of the animal, the location in space or time, and his hunger or thirst. a Repeated simile: Ody. These three similes are not as tightly juxtaposed as at 2.144/147, 468/469, and 14.394. 22. Primavesi 2004:138–39. The simile suggests that Calypso’s island has been the land of death; the sea is the place, This theme of renewed life is echoed in the final simile of the book, that of the lonely farmer who buries a surviving ember that can be rekindled (488).

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